- Analysis & Instrumentation
- Cleaning, Polishing & Grinding
- Clinical Analysis & Diagnostics
- Coating & Surface Treatment
Controlled & Modified Atmospheres
- Controlled Atmosphere Stunning (CAS)
- Enhancing Greenhouse Growth
- Liquid Nitrogen Dosing
- Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
- Oxygenation in Aquaculture
- Cutting, Joining & Heating
- Environmental monitoring & protection
- Freezing & Cooling
- Fumigation & Pest Control
- Heat Treatment
- Inerting, purging, sparging
- Melting & Heating
- Pressurisation & Propellant
- Petrochemical Processing & Refining
- Pharmaceutical Processing
- Plastics & Rubber Processing
- Process Chemistry
- Water treatment
- Water and Wastewater Treatment
Microbial growth and rancidity are the primary causes of quality deterioration in dairy products. The type of breakdown depends on the characteristics of the particular product. Hard cheeses with relatively low water activity are normally affected by the growth of molds, whereas products with high water activity such as cream and soft cheeses are more susceptible to fermentation and rancidity.
Lactobacillus, which is widely used in the dairy industry, can also pose a problem as it turns products sour by lowering their pH value. This may be further intensified by incorrect packaging atmospheres with excessive levels of carbon dioxide (e.g. cottage cheese packages).
Preventing Mold Formation with Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main gas used to package hard cheeses. It effectively stops/reduces microbial activity and helps to retain texture. CO2 concentrations of as low as 20% strongly inhibit the growth of mold fungi. Lactic acid bacteria, a natural constituent of cheese, is hardly affected by the surrounding atmosphere.
Soft cheeses are also packaged in atmospheres with higher levels of CO2 and lower levels of oxygen to inhibit bacterial growth and rancidity.
CO2 levels of up to 100% are used for hard cheeses. This is usually restricted to between 20 and 40% in the case of soft cheeses. The reason for this is to prevent the package from collapsing under atmospheric pressure as the CO2 dissolves into water.
Value-added cheeses, such as grated or sliced cheddar, are also packaged in modified atmospheres. Grated cheese is normally packed in an atmosphere of 70% nitrogen and 30% CO2. By limiting CO2 to 30%, manufacturers can avoid package collapse.
Cultured Products Present New Window of Opportunity
In the past, cultured products such as cottage cheese and yogurt were not packaged in modified atmospheres. This, however, is changing to meet market demand for longer shelf lives. CO2 extends the shelf life of cottage cheese by up to one week, for example.
Keeping Cream Fresh
Cream and dairy products containing cream rapidly turn sour in oxygen or air atmospheres. By replacing oxygen with nitrogen, however, manufacturers can prevent rancidity and the growth of aerobic bacteria.
Recommended gas mixtures for dairy products:
|Product||Gas mixture||Gas / product Volume||Typical shelf life Air||Typical shelf life MAP||Storage temp.|
|Hard cheese||80-100% CO2 + 0 - 20% N2||50-100ml / 100g cheese||2-3 weeks||4-10 weeks||4-6 °C|
|Hard cheese, (sliced, grated)||40% CO2 + 60% N2||50-100ml / 100g cheese||2-3 weeks||7 weeks||4-6 °C|
|Soft cheese||20-60% CO2 + 40-80% N2||50-100ml / 100g cheese||8 days||21 days||4-6 °C|
|Yogurt||0-30% CO2 + 70-100% N2||10-14 days||22-25 days||4-6 °C|